While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of «promises» or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with «nothing, only promises» and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Countries are also working to reach «the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions» as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Although the slowdown and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020.  18 id. art.
21. In the United States, President Obama`s administration considers the Paris Agreement to be a presidential agreement for the implementation of the convention and does not need to be ratified by the Senate. Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that «the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.» and acknowledges that «much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.»  [Clarification needed] The Paris Agreement has an «upward» structure as opposed to most international environmental treaties that are «top down» , characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding.