According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2oC by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, annual emissions must be below 25 Gigaton (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions by 2030 will be 56 Gt CO2e, twice the environmental target. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, an annual reduction in emissions of 7.6% is needed between 2020 and 2030. The four main emitters (China, the United States, the EU-27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions due to land use changes such as deforestation. China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. U.S. emissions account for 13% of global emissions and emissions have increased by 2.5% in 2018. EU emissions, which account for 8.5% of global emissions, have fallen by 1% per year over the past decade. Emissions fell by 1.3% in 2018.
In 2018, 7% of India`s global emissions increased by 5.5%, but its per capita emissions are one of the lowest in the G20.  The 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference (COP 21) catalyzed an unprecedented vision of combating climate change and engagement on the part of a wide range of non-state actors, including businesses and investors, subnational governments and civil society organizations. Governments have taken a series of measures in … In the agreements adopted in Copenhagen in 2009 and Cancun in 2010, governments set a target of keeping global temperature increases below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement reaffirms the 2-degree target and insists that the increase be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement also sets two other long-term mitigation objectives: first, a peak in emissions as soon as possible (recognizing that it will take longer for developing countries); a goal of net neutrality of greenhouse gases («a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and distance by wells») in the second half of the century. (a) to keep the global average temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, the potential to significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change; Adaptation – the measures to be taken to deal with the effects of climate change – is much more important under the Paris Agreement than it has done so far under the UNFCCC. As well as the parties will make contributions to the reduction, the Agreement requires all parties to plan and implement adjustment efforts «where appropriate» and encourages all parties to report on their adjustment efforts and/or needs.