Before starting its programme of activities under the contract, any contractor is also required to present the Secretary-General with an emergency plan in order to respond effectively to incidents arising from his activities in the exploration area. ISA has 15-year contracts with 21 contractors for the exploration of polymetallic nodules, polymetallic sulfamides and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts in the seabed. With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982 and the entry into force of the ISA in 1994, exploration activities in the region began to be governed by exploration contracts. Originally, exploration activities were mainly carried out by national agencies, until private companies were involved in 2010 and a polymetallic effort industry was established. 18 of these contracts are for the exploration of polymetallic nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone (16) and in the central Indian Ocean (1) and the Western Pacific Ocean (1). There are seven (7) contracts for the exploration of polymetallic sulphides in the South West Indian Ridge, Central Indian Ridge and mid-Atlantic Ridge and five (5) contracts for the exploration of cobalt-rich crusts in the western Pacific Ocean. Most exploration agreements require parties to acquire seismic data (either by purchasing existing data or by conducting a new seismic review) and that they will use this seismic data to identify interested parties in the area covered by the program. The first discovery of polymetallic nodules also took place with this historic Challenger voyage; On March 7, 1873, the shovel towed on its deck «several strange black oval bodies composed of almost pure manganese oxide.» But it was not until a century later that an economic interest developed for polymetallic deep-water tubers, which in the 1960s and 1970s led to the formation of consortia in Germany, the United States, Canada, Japan, France, Belgium and Italy. These consortia were designed to develop resource and extraction technology assessments for polymetallic nodules in the Clarion Clipperton area in the central Pacific Ocean. Annual report: each contractor is also required to submit an annual report on their program of activities.
Training: Each contractor is required to offer a training programme for nationals of developing countries. The training program agreed with the ISA is included in the contract as schedule 3. . The contracting parties recognize that the termination of the MAI under this Regulation is not limited to denouncing the areas of common interest defined by the parties for the project areas previously designated in accordance with Section 3.2 or the areas of common interest defined in these geophysical exploration agreements. The annual need for assessment work for the seven IOL exploration agreements (55,976 ha) is $30.00 per hectare per year. In the Canadian context, exploration agreements and exploration agreements are negotiated with indigenous and First Nation communities that own land titles or mineral and land rights in the region. Modern oceanography began as a scientific field about 150 years ago, at the end of the 19th century. The first scientific expedition to explore the oceans and seabed was the Challenger Expedition from 1872 to 1876 aboard the British three-masted warship HMS Challenger.
One of the discoveries of the Challenger expedition was one of the deepest parts of the ocean — the Mariana Trench in the western ocean, where the seabed is more than 8 km deep. The expedition also revealed the first coarse contours of the shape of the ocean basin, including a climb to the center of the Atlantic Ocean, now known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.