To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. In addition, countries are working to reach «the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions» as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Compared to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and even the Copenhagen agreement, the subtle differentiation of the 2015 Paris Agreement is much more pronounced (see Table 2 in the additional online material). There are 19 cases of subtle differentiation from country by-products, some substantive issues or procedures (see Table 1). This is most clearly apparent from funding and capacity building, but also from mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer (both in the preamble and in Article 13, but not in Article 10 on technology transfer) and the transparency framework. In this sense, the subtle differentiation covers the main objectives of the Paris Agreement in accordance with Article 2 (reduction, adaptation and funding), even if this provision does not lack subtle differentiation. Article 8 on losses and damages does not make the state of differentiation, as it does not include any obligation for parties other than «improving understanding» (UNFCCC, 2015, Section 8.3). In order to determine whether self-differentiation is compatible with subtle differentiation, we have identified three categories of countries: the industrialized countries listed in UnFCCC Schedule I; LDC and SIDS (following the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement) and other countries (which we call «emerging economies»).
We analysed whether these categories of countries had identifiable cascading results compared to the subtle differentiation found in the Paris Agreement (see Table 1). For example, if 70% of LDCs and SIDS included a particular topic in their NDCs, compared to only 40% of emerging countries and only 10% of Schedule I countries, such a cascade would demonstrate self-differentiation on the part of the NDCs on this issue. On the other hand, if similar percentages of emerging countries and LDCs and SIDS contain a particular subject, no cascades are demonstrated, meaning that self-differentiation would remain dichotomous. The method is described in more detail in the additional online information. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. Bodansky D (2016) The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A New Hope? Law J Int 110:288-319. doi.org/10.5305/amerjintelaw.110.2.0288 These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016.